The rise of misinformation, online incivilities, hateful speech, and political polarisation during the pandemic has made the acquisition of digital citizenship competence a necessity to create an engaged, informed, and responsible citizenry. However, are families and society prepared to use digital technologies effectively? Furthermore, how can policy be developed to address the rise of ominous trends threatening tolerance, peace, and civility? This study explored these questions in two phases. In Phase 1, 70 documents were reviewed citizenship and analysed, while in Phase 2, 397 parents responded to an online, nationwide survey that gauged the general trends of digital citizenship, self-efficacy, and digital participation and activism.
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